Research and writing leading to a book on exile as a criminal punishment in early modern Spain with economic, social, religious, and political repercussions.
This project follows the lives of individuals sentenced with exile in early modern Spain. I argue that in using exile as a criminal punishment, authorities created new categories of poverty and criminality: exiles became criminal vagrants in the next kingdom, vagrants were easily construed as the notorious bandits of the period. Exiles, vagrants, and bandits were all united by poverty and class: the application of exile was a regressive punishment, primarily used against the lower classes, and one that was experienced wildly differently by those with means versus those without. In this way, I also argue for a reconsideration of the ways in which we think about the creation of poverty in the early modern world, and particularly through the application of labels by the justice system. Though my project focuses on early modern Spain, my project should also speak to scholars working on banditry and crime in other areas like Italy, Germany, and China.
|Effective start/end date||8/1/23 → 7/31/24|
- National Endowment for the Humanities: $60,000.00