2014 female athlete triad coalition consensus statement on treatment and return to play of the female athlete triad

Elizabeth Joy, Mary Jane De Souza, Aurelia Nattiv, Madhusmita Misra, Nancy I. Williams, Rebecca J. Mallinson, Jenna C. Gibbs, Marion Olmsted, Marci Goolsby, Gordon Matheson, Michelle Barrack, Louise Burke, Barbara Drinkwater, Connie Lebrun, Anne B. Loucks, Margo Mountjoy, Jeanne Nichols, Jorunn Sundgot Borgen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

107 Scopus citations


The female athlete triad is a medical condition often observed in physically active girls and women and involves three components: 1) low energy availability with or without disordered eating, 2) menstrual dysfunction, and 3) low bone mineral density. Female athletes often present with one or more of the three triad components, and early intervention is essential to prevent its progression to serious end points that include clinical eating disorders, amenorrhea, and osteoporosis. This consensus statement presents a set of recommendations developed following the first (San Francisco, CA) and second (Indianapolis, IN) International Symposia on the Female Athlete Triad. This consensus statement was intended to provide clinical guidelines for physicians, athletic trainers, and other health care providers for the screening, diagnosis, and treatment of the female athlete triad and to provide clear recommendations for return to play. The expert panel has proposed a risk stratification point system that takes into account magnitude of risk to assist the physician in decision making regarding sport participation, clearance, and return to play. Guidelines are offered for clearance categories, management by a multidisciplinary team, and implementation of treatment contracts.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)219-231
Number of pages13
JournalCurrent sports medicine reports
Issue number4
StatePublished - 2014

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Orthopedics and Sports Medicine
  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health


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