3D printable high-performance conducting polymer hydrogel for all-hydrogel bioelectronic interfaces

Tao Zhou, Hyunwoo Yuk, Faqi Hu, Jingjing Wu, Fajuan Tian, Heejung Roh, Zequn Shen, Guoying Gu, Jingkun Xu, Baoyang Lu, Xuanhe Zhao

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

103 Scopus citations


Owing to the unique combination of electrical conductivity and tissue-like mechanical properties, conducting polymer hydrogels have emerged as a promising candidate for bioelectronic interfacing with biological systems. However, despite the recent advances, the development of hydrogels with both excellent electrical and mechanical properties in physiological environments is still challenging. Here we report a bi-continuous conducting polymer hydrogel that simultaneously achieves high electrical conductivity (over 11 S cm−1), stretchability (over 400%) and fracture toughness (over 3,300 J m−2) in physiological environments and is readily applicable to advanced fabrication methods including 3D printing. Enabled by these properties, we further demonstrate multi-material 3D printing of monolithic all-hydrogel bioelectronic interfaces for long-term electrophysiological recording and stimulation of various organs in rat models.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)895-902
Number of pages8
JournalNature Materials
Issue number7
StatePublished - Jul 2023

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • General Chemistry
  • General Materials Science
  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Mechanics of Materials
  • Mechanical Engineering

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