A Comprehensive Review of COVID-19-Associated Endocrine Manifestations

Saif Khan, Maryam Karim, Vasu Gupta, Heenam Goel, Rohit Jain

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations


Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has played a significant part in systematic damage, affecting lives and leading to significant mortality. The endocrine system is one of the systems affected by this pandemic outbreak. The relationship between them has been identified in previous and ongoing research. The mechanism through which severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) can achieve this is similar to that for organs that express angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 receptors, which is the primary binding site of the virus. Endocrine cells widely express angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 receptors and transmembrane serine protease 2, the primary mediators initiating the acute phase of the disease. This review aimed to identify and discuss the endocrine complications of COVID-19. This primary focus is on presenting thyroid disorders or newly diagnosed diabetes mellitus (DM). Thyroid dysfunction with subacute thyroiditis, Graves' disease, and hypothyroidism caused by primary autoimmune thyroiditis has been reported. Pancreatic damage leads to type 1 DM because of the autoimmune nature of the disease and type 2 DM because of postinflammatory insulin resistance. Because follow-up data on COVID-19 on the endocrine glands are limited, long-term investigations are needed to assess specific effects.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)350-354
Number of pages5
JournalSouthern Medical Journal
Issue number4
StatePublished - Apr 1 2023

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Medicine(all)

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