A comprehensive review on 3D tissue models: Biofabrication technologies and preclinical applications

Renjian Xie, Vaibhav Pal, Yanrong Yu, Xiaolu Lu, Mengwei Gao, Shijie Liang, Miao Huang, Weijie Peng, Ibrahim T. Ozbolat

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


The limitations of traditional two-dimensional (2D) cultures and animal testing, when it comes to precisely foreseeing the toxicity and clinical effectiveness of potential drug candidates, have resulted in a notable increase in the rate of failure during the process of drug discovery and development. Three-dimensional (3D) in-vitro models have arisen as substitute platforms with the capacity to accurately depict in-vivo conditions and increasing the predictivity of clinical effects and toxicity of drug candidates. It has been found that 3D models can accurately represent complex tissue structure of human body and can be used for a wide range of disease modeling purposes. Recently, substantial progress in biomedicine, materials and engineering have been made to fabricate various 3D in-vitro models, which have been exhibited better disease progression predictivity and drug effects than convention models, suggesting a promising direction in pharmaceutics. This comprehensive review highlights the recent developments in 3D in-vitro tissue models for preclinical applications including drug screening and disease modeling targeting multiple organs and tissues, like liver, bone, gastrointestinal tract, kidney, heart, brain, and cartilage. We discuss current strategies for fabricating 3D models for specific organs with their strengths and pitfalls. We expand future considerations for establishing a physiologically-relevant microenvironment for growing 3D models and also provide readers with a perspective on intellectual property, industry, and regulatory landscape.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number122408
StatePublished - Jan 2024

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Biophysics
  • Bioengineering
  • Ceramics and Composites
  • Biomaterials
  • Mechanics of Materials

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