Most state-of-the art battery-control strategies rely on voltage-based design limits to address performance and lifetime concerns. Such approaches are inherently conservative. However, by exploiting internal electrochemical quantities, it is possible to control battery performance right up to true physical bounds. This paper develops an extensible framework that combines model predictive control (MPC) with computationally efficient realization algorithm (xRA)-generated reduced-order electrochemical models for the advanced control of lithium-ion batteries. The approach is demonstrated on the fast-charge problem where hard constraints are imposed on problem variables to avoid lithium plating induced performance degradation. This work establishes a general mathematical foundation for the incorporation of electrochemically rich reduced-order models directly into an MPC framework.