A critical assessment of the boxes paradigm

David W. Russell

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

5 Scopus citations


This paper is a constructive critique of the BOXES methodology, based on more than fifteen years of study by the author, and is designed to be an evaluative reference in regard to its future application in real-time, real world systems. The paradigm is examined in some detail with particular reference to sections that convey the “spirit of the method” rather than paying too much attention to the mathematical processes involved, or to any particular application. Areas of concern are discussed, and alterations to some of the basic algorithmic components are suggested. The paper concludes with a “futures” section that highlights further studies in the application of this truly BLACK BOX controller.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)383-395
Number of pages13
JournalApplied Artificial Intelligence
Issue number4
StatePublished - 1993

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Artificial Intelligence


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