A dimensionless number for high-throughput design of multi-principal element alloys in directed energy deposition

Zahabul Islam, Phalgun Nelaturu, Dan J. Thoma

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The present study demonstrates the development of a dimensionless number to predict the build height in the additive manufacturing technique of directed energy deposition (DED). The build height can also be used to estimate the dendrite arm spacing and, thus, the cooling rate in the fabrication of samples. A baseline sample, 316L stainless steel, was used to fit the build height to the dimensionless number. A range of process parameters, including laser power, laser feed rate, powder flow rate, layer thickness, and hatch spacing, were varied. Based upon dendrite arm spacing, the estimated cooling rate varied between 102 and 104 K/s. Using the fitted relationship for the stainless steel, high-throughput (HT) processing of multi-principal element alloys (MPEAs) was performed. For this study, HT is the ability to fabricate a batch of 25 bulk samples (∼1 cm3) with different compositions within a 5-h period with ±10 at. % accuracy. A range of compositions using in situ alloying of elemental powders in the Fe-Ni-Cr-Mo system were made. The MPEAs' build height followed the same relationship to the dimensionless number as the 316L alloy. The dimensionless number predicts both macro and meso-scale features in HT processing, thus offering a design tool for choosing process parameters in DED additive manufacturing. Also, the ability to control or increase cooling rates can enhance the ability to promote metastability as well as control meso-scale chemical distributions of alloy samples.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number231901
JournalApplied Physics Letters
Issue number23
StatePublished - Dec 6 2021

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Physics and Astronomy (miscellaneous)

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