A Framework for Designing Scaffolds That Improve Motivation and Cognition

Brian R. Belland, Chan Min Kim, Michael J. Hannafin

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

174 Scopus citations


A problematic, yet common, assumption among educational researchers is that when teachers provide authentic, problem-based experiences, students will automatically be engaged. Evidence indicates that this is often not the case. In this article, we discuss (a) problems with ignoring motivation in the design of learning environments, (b) problem-based learning and scaffolding as one way to help, (c) how scaffolding has strayed from what was originally equal parts motivational and cognitive support, and (d) a conceptual framework for the design of scaffolds that can enhance motivation as well as cognitive outcomes. We propose guidelines for the design of computer-based scaffolds to promote motivation and engagement while students are solving authentic problems. Remaining questions and suggestions for future research are then discussed.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)243-270
Number of pages28
JournalEducational Psychologist
Issue number4
StatePublished - Oct 2013

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Developmental and Educational Psychology


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