A Free Energy Model for Hysteresis in Ferroelectric Materials

Ralph C. Smith, Stefan Seelecke, Zoubeida Ounaies, Joshua Smith

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

110 Scopus citations


This paper provides a theory for quantifying the hysteresis and constitutive nonlinearities inherent to piezoceramic compounds through a combination of free energy analysis and stochastic homogenization techniques. In the first step of the model development, Helmholtz and Gibbs free energy relations are constructed at the lattice or domain level to quantify the relation between the field and polarization in homogeneous, single crystal compounds which exhibit uniform effective fields. The effects of material nonhomogeneities, polycrystallinity, and variable effective fields are subsequently incorporated through the assumption that certain physical parameters, including the local coercive and effective fields, are randomly distributed and hence manifestations of stochastic density functions associated with the material. Stochastic homogenization in this manner provides low-order macroscopic models with effective parameters that can be correlated with physical properties of the data. This facilitates the identification of parameters for model construction, model updating to accommodate changing operating conditions, and controldesign utilizing model-based inverse compensators. Attributes of the model, including the guaranteed closure of biased minor loops in quasistatic drive regimes, are illustrated through examples.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)719-739
Number of pages21
JournalJournal of Intelligent Material Systems and Structures
Issue number11
StatePublished - Nov 2003

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • General Materials Science
  • Mechanical Engineering


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