A hypomorphic allele reveals an important role of inturned in mouse skeletal development

Rachel Chang, Juliette R. Petersen, Lee A. Niswander, Aimin Liu

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

15 Scopus citations


Background: Cilia are important for Hedgehog signaling in vertebrates and many genes that encode proteins involved in ciliogenesis have been studied for their roles in embryonic development. Null mutations in many of these genes cause early embryonic lethality, hence an understanding of their roles in postnatal development is limited. Results: The Inturned (Intu) gene is required for ciliogenesis and here we report a recessive hypomorphic mutation, resulting in substitution of a conserved hydrophobic residue (I813N) near the C-terminus, that sheds light on later functions of Intu. Mice homozygous for this Double-thumb (IntuDtm) allele exhibit polydactyly, retarded growth, and reduced survival. There is a moderate loss of cilia in IntuDtm/Dtm mutants, and IntuI813N exhibits compromised ability to increase ciliogenesis in cultured Intu null mutant cells. IntuDtm mutants show rib defects and delay of endochondral ossification in long bones, digits, vertebrae, and the sternum. These skeletal defects correlate with a decrease in Hh signaling. However, patterning of the neural tube and planar cell polarity appear to be normal. Conclusions: This hypomorphic Intu allele highlights an important role of Intu in mouse skeletal development.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)736-747
Number of pages12
JournalDevelopmental Dynamics
Issue number6
StatePublished - Jun 1 2015

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Developmental Biology


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