A Longitudinal Assessment of the Impact of Endometriosis on Patients’ Salary Growth and Risk of Leaving the Workforce

Stephanie J. Estes, Ahmed M. Soliman, Hongbo Yang, Jessie Wang, Jonathan Freimark

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

8 Scopus citations


Introduction: This retrospective cohort study evaluated the impact of endometriosis on the risks of work loss events and salary/growth over a 5-year period. Methods: Women aged 18–49 years with ≥ 1 endometriosis diagnosis were identified in a claims database and matched 1:1 to women without endometriosis (controls). The index date was the first endometriosis diagnosis date (endometriosis cohort) or a random date during the period of continuous eligibility (controls). Baseline characteristics were compared between cohorts descriptively. Average annual salaries were compared over the 5 years post-index using generalized estimating equations accounting for matching. Time-to-event analyses assessed risk of short-term disability, long-term disability, leave of absence, early retirement, and any event of leaving the workforce (Kaplan-Meier curves with log-rank tests). Results: A total of 6851 matched pairs (mean age at index date: 38.7 years) were included in the salary growth analysis, with a subset of 1981 pairs in the risk of leaving the workforce analysis. In year 1, the endometriosis cohort had a lower average annual salary ($61,322) than controls ($64,720); salaries were lower in years 2–5 by $3697–$6600 (all p < 0.01). The endometriosis cohort experienced smaller salary growth than controls in all years, ranging from $438 vs. $1058 in year 1 to $4906 vs. $7074 in year 5 (all p < 0.05). In the Kaplan-Meier analyses, patients with endometriosis were significantly more likely than controls to leave the workforce for any reason, take a leave of absence, and use short-term disability (all log-rank tests p < 0.001). Additionally, the median number of years to each of these events was lower for the endometriosis cohort relative to the matched controls. Sensitivity analyses among patients with moderate-to-severe endometriosis and by salary brackets confirmed the primary analyses. Conclusions: Patients with endometriosis experienced lower annual salary and salary growth, as well as higher risks of work loss events, compared with matched controls.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)2144-2158
Number of pages15
JournalAdvances in Therapy
Issue number5
StatePublished - May 1 2020

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Pharmacology (medical)


Dive into the research topics of 'A Longitudinal Assessment of the Impact of Endometriosis on Patients’ Salary Growth and Risk of Leaving the Workforce'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this