A Machine-Learning Based Approach for Predicting Older Adults’ Adherence to Technology-Based Cognitive Training

Zhe He, Shubo Tian, Ankita Singh, Shayok Chakraborty, Shenghao Zhang, Mia Liza A. Lustria, Neil Charness, Nelson A. Roque, Erin R. Harrell, Walter R. Boot

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

5 Scopus citations


Adequate adherence is a necessary condition for success with any intervention, including for computerized cognitive training designed to mitigate age-related cognitive decline. Tailored prompting systems offer promise for promoting adherence and facilitating intervention success. However, developing adherence support systems capable of just-in-time adaptive reminders requires understanding the factors that predict adherence, particularly an imminent adherence lapse. In this study we built machine learning models to predict participants’ adherence at different levels (overall and weekly) using data collected from a previous cognitive training intervention. We then built machine learning models to predict adherence using a variety of baseline measures (demographic, attitudinal, and cognitive ability variables), as well as deep learning models to predict the next week's adherence using variables derived from training interactions in the previous week. Logistic regression models with selected baseline variables were able to predict overall adherence with moderate accuracy (AUROC: 0.71), while some recurrent neural network models were able to predict weekly adherence with high accuracy (AUROC: 0.84-0.86) based on daily interactions. Analysis of the post hoc explanation of machine learning models revealed that general self-efficacy, objective memory measures, and technology self-efficacy were most predictive of participants’ overall adherence, while time of training, sessions played, and game outcomes were predictive of the next week's adherence. Machine-learning based approaches revealed that both individual difference characteristics and previous intervention interactions provide useful information for predicting adherence, and these insights can provide initial clues as to who to target with adherence support strategies and when to provide support. This information will inform the development of a technology-based, just-in-time adherence support systems.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number103034
JournalInformation Processing and Management
Issue number5
StatePublished - Sep 2022

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Information Systems
  • Media Technology
  • Computer Science Applications
  • Management Science and Operations Research
  • Library and Information Sciences

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