A novel threshold voltage defined switch for circuit camouflaging

Ithihasa Reddy Nirmala, Deepak Vontela, Swaroop Ghosh, Anirudh Iyengar

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

29 Scopus citations


Semiconductor supply chain is increasingly getting exposed to variety of security attacks such as Trojan insertion, cloning, counterfeiting, reverse engineering (RE), piracy of Intellectual Property (IP) or Integrated Circuit (IC) and side-channel analysis due to involvement of untrusted parties. In this paper, we propose threshold voltage-defined switches that will camouflage the logic gate both logically and physically to resist RE and IP piracy. The proposed gate can function as NAND, AND, NOR, OR, XOR, and XNOR robustly using threshold defined switches. We also propose a flavor of camouflaged gate that represents reduced functionality (NAND, NOR and NOT) at much lower overhead. The camouflaged design operates at nominal voltage and obeys conventional reliability limits. A small fraction of gates can be camouflaged to increase the RE effort extremely high. Simulation results indicate 46-53% area, 59-68% delay and 52-76% power overhead when 5-15% gates are identified and camouflaged using the proposed gate. A significant higher RE effort is achieved when the proposed gate is employed in the netlist using controllability, observability and hamming distance sensitivity based gate selection metrics.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationProceedings - 2016 21st IEEE European Test Symposium, ETS 2016
PublisherInstitute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc.
ISBN (Electronic)9781467396592
StatePublished - Jul 22 2016
Event21st IEEE European Test Symposium, ETS 2016 - Amsterdam, Netherlands
Duration: May 23 2016May 26 2016

Publication series

NameProceedings of the European Test Workshop
ISSN (Print)1530-1877
ISSN (Electronic)1558-1780


Other21st IEEE European Test Symposium, ETS 2016

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering
  • Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering
  • Software


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