A review of cardiac autonomics: From pathophysiology to therapy

Katherine Julian, Blaine Prichard, Joseph Raco, Rahul Jain, Rohit Jain

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

3 Scopus citations


The effective management of cardiovascular diseases requires knowledge of intrinsic and extrinsic innervation of the heart and an understanding of how perturbations of said components affect cardiac function. The innate cardiac conduction system, which begins with cardiac pacemaker cells and terminates with subendocardial Purkinje fibers, is modulated by said systems. The intrinsic component of the cardiac autonomic nervous system, which remains incompletely elucidated, consists of intracardiac ganglia and interconnecting neurons that tightly regulate cardiac electrical activity. Extrinsic components of the autonomic nervous system, such as carotid baroreceptors and renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, modulate sympathetic input to the heart through the stellate ganglion and parasympathetic input via the vagus nerve. There remains a need for additional therapies to treat conditions, such as advanced heart failure and refractory arrhythmias, and a better understanding of autonomics may be key to their development.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)125-133
Number of pages9
JournalFuture Cardiology
Issue number2
StatePublished - Feb 2022

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Molecular Medicine
  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine


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