A review of chloride transport in alkali-activated cement paste, mortar, and concrete

Jorge Osio-Norgaard, Juan Pablo Gevaudan, Wil V. Srubar

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

65 Scopus citations


In this review, we present a meta-analysis of experimental data concerning chloride transport in alkali-activated cement (AAC) paste, mortar, and concrete. Sixty-six (66) studies were reviewed with a primary focus on measurement methodology, mixture design, and process-structure-property relationships related to microstructural development (i.e., porosity, pore size distribution), chloride diffusion, and chloride binding. In general, this review elucidates that aluminosilicate precursors with high amorphous contents and increased fineness that are activated with solutions of high alkalinity (Na:Al ≥ 0.75) and silica content (Si:Al ≥ 1.5) in combination with heat-curing (>40 °C) lead to microstructural characteristics (e.g., binder gel chemistries) that improve chloride durability, even though interactions between these factors are not well understood. Descriptive statistics of reported AAC paste porosities and AAC concrete chloride diffusion coefficients by aluminosilicate precursor (i.e., fly ash, slag, calcined clay, natural clay, binary blends) are presented, along with a summative discussion regarding new opportunities for advancing current scientific understanding of chloride transport in AACs.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)191-206
Number of pages16
JournalConstruction and Building Materials
StatePublished - Oct 20 2018

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Civil and Structural Engineering
  • Building and Construction
  • General Materials Science


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