A review of proper modeling techniques

Tulga Ersal, Hosam K. Fathy, D. Geoff Rideout, Loucas S. Louca, Jeffrey L. Stein

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

55 Scopus citations


A dynamic system model is proper for a particular application if it achieves the accuracy required by the application with minimal complexity. Because model complexity often-but not always-correlates inversely with simulation speed, a proper model is often alternatively defined as one balancing accuracy and speed. Such balancing is crucial for applications requiring both model accuracy and speed, such as system optimization and hardware-in-the-loop simulation. Furthermore, the simplicity of proper models conduces to control system analysis and design, particularly given the ease with which lower-order controllers can be implemented compared to higher-order ones. The literature presents many algorithms for deducing proper models from simpler ones or reducing complex models until they become proper. This paper presents a broad survey of the proper modeling literature. To simplify the presentation, the algorithms are classified into frequency, projection, optimization, and energy based, based on the metrics they use for obtaining proper models. The basic mechanics, properties, advantages, and limitations of the methods are discussed, along with the relationships between different techniques, with the intention of helping the modeler to identify the most suitable proper modeling method for a given application.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)610081-6100813
Number of pages5490733
JournalJournal of Dynamic Systems, Measurement and Control, Transactions of the ASME
Issue number6
StatePublished - Nov 2008

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Control and Systems Engineering
  • Information Systems
  • Instrumentation
  • Mechanical Engineering
  • Computer Science Applications


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