A review on the sources, occurrence and health risks of per-/poly-fluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) arising from the manufacture and disposal of electric and electronic products

Shafali Garg, Pankaj Kumar, Vandana Mishra, Rosanne Guijt, Prabhjot Singh, Ludovic F. Dumée, Radhey Shyam Sharma

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

76 Scopus citations


Electric and electronic waste materials (e-waste) serve as a reservoir of highly persistent and extremely toxic inorganic and organic hazardous materials, including per-/poly-fluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) compounds. Besides the electric and electronic industry, PFAS remain an important industrial chemical class because PFAS coating on consumer goods increases their mechanical and thermochemical resistance as well as to tune their liquid repellence properties to oil and water. The release of PFAS from e-waste processing sites and storage landfills into wastewaters was reviewed. It appears that e-waste materials in landfills serve as important nodes for PFAS diffusion to water, soil, hence exerting ecotoxicity on exposed human populations. Evidence from cross-sectional, case-control, and longitudinal studies show that co-occurrence of PFAS and other e-waste toxicants in body fluids and organs of humans act synergistically in causing several health disorders. Based on holistic analyses, the review highlights that PFAS compounds significantly contribute to e-waste pollution, which needs immediate attention from policymakers.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number101683
JournalJournal of Water Process Engineering
StatePublished - Dec 2020

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Biotechnology
  • Safety, Risk, Reliability and Quality
  • Waste Management and Disposal
  • Process Chemistry and Technology

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