A robust thermal modulator for comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography

John B. Phillips, Richard B. Gaines, Jan Blomberg, Frans W.M. Van Der Wielen, Jean Marie Dimandja, Vaughn Green, James Granger, Don Patterson, Laell Racovalis, Henk Jan De Geus, Jacob De Boer, Peter Haglund, John Lipsky, Veena Sinha, Edward B. Ledford

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

172 Scopus citations


In comprehensive two dimensional gas chromatography (GCxGC), two capillary columns are connected in series through an interface known as a 'thermal modulator'. This device transforms effluent from the first capillary column into a series of sharp injection-like chemical pulses suitable for high-speed chromatography the second column. Dramatic increases in the resolving power, sensitivity, and speed of the gas chromatograph result. This paper describes the development of a robust and reliable thermal modulator for GC x GC.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)3-10
Number of pages8
JournalHRC Journal of High Resolution Chromatography
Issue number1
StatePublished - 1999

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • General Chemical Engineering


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