Introduction Rates of infectious complications continue to increase following transrectal ultrasound guided prostate needle biopsy (TRUS PNB). Administration of a parenteral antibiotic at time of procedure represents one potential prophylaxis strategy. The efficacy of this practice remains incompletely defined. Material and methods Our institutional TRUS PNB database was reviewed to identify consecutive men undergoing a biopsy over a 48-month period. The peri-operative intravenous antibiotic regimen (when used) included gentamicin 80 mg administered intravenously (IV) 30 minutes prior to biopsy. The incidence of infections post-biopsy was compared between patients receiving oral alone versus IV plus oral antibiotic prophylaxis. Results 182 of 522 men (34.9%) included in this study received peri-procedural IV gentamicin at time of TRUS PNB, with a significant increase in utilization during the study time period (p <0.001). In total, 39 patients (7.5%) developed an infectious complication post-biopsy. No differences in infection rates were observed between patients receiving only oral prophylaxis (27 of 340, 7.9%) versus those receiving oral with IV gentamicin (12 of 182, 6.6%) (p = 0.73). Conclusions In this 4-year cohort analysis, a single peri-procedural dose of 80 mg of intravenous gentamicin failed to confer a reduction in infectious complications following prostate needle biopsy. Such data underscore the need to better understand the dose, route, and type of antimicrobial therapy to limit procedural infections.
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