A Subgroup Meta-Analysis Comparing the Renal Denervation Sham-Controlled Randomized Trials Among Those With Resistant and Nonresistant Hypertension

Mohammad Ahmed, Matthew Nudy, Rahul Bussa, Gerald V. Naccarelli, Edward J. Filippone, Andrew J. Foy

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

4 Scopus citations

Abstract

Renal denervation (RD) has been investigated as an invasive blood pressure (BP) lowering treatment for hypertension (HTN). Resistant HTN (RHTN) has been defined as uncontrolled BP despite use of 3 antihypertensive medications of different classes, including a diuretic, at maximum tolerated doses. The impact of RD on RHTN remains under investigation. Ten sham-controlled trials testing RD were included in this trial-level analysis. A prespecified subgroup analysis was conducted to test whether efficacy of RD differed in patients with and without RHTN. The primary end points were change in 24-hour ambulatory systolic (SBP) and diastolic (DBP) using raw mean difference (RMD) between sham control and RD. Ten studies (6 RHTN and 4 nonresistant HTN) were identified that included 1,544 participants (1,001 RHTN and 543 essential HTN) with cumulative mean age (±SD) of 57 years (±3). Cochran risk of bias assessment showed 69% of the domains to be at low risk of bias. The RMD for 24-hour SBP between RD and sham control was statistically significant for nonresistant HTN trials (–4.19 mm Hg; 95% confidence interval [CI] –6.07 to –2.30) but was not statistically significant for RHTN trials (–1.86 mm Hg; 95% CI – 3.89 to 0.16). Despite the numerical difference in the subgroups, the interaction between subgroups failed to reach statistical significance (p = 0.10). The RMD for 24-hour DBP between RD and sham control was statistically significant for nonresistant HTN trials (–2.60 mm Hg; 95% CI –3.79 to –1.42) but was not statistically significant for RHTN trials (–0.67 mm Hg; 95% CI –1.84 to 0.50). The interaction between subgroups was statistically significant (p = 0.02). Our analysis indicates RD is a less effective intervention for patients with RHTN. These data may be beneficial for clinicians to consider when assessing patients with RHTN for RD.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)119-124
Number of pages6
JournalAmerican Journal of Cardiology
Volume191
DOIs
StatePublished - Mar 15 2023

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine

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