Background: Unplanned hospital readmissions after surgical operations are considered a marker for suboptimal care during index hospitalizations and are associated with poor patient outcomes and increased healthcare resource utilization. Patients undergoing lower extremity bypass (LEB) operations for severe peripheral arterial disease (PAD) have one of the highest readmission rates, among all the vascular and nonvascular surgical operations. This review is meant to evaluate the impact of pre-existing comorbidities (diabetes mellitus (DM), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), congestive heart failure (CHF), hypertension (HTN), and coronary artery disease (CAD))—on the 30-day readmission rates among patients who underwent LEB for severe PAD. Methods: The review protocol was registered to the PROSPERO database (CRD42021261067). A systematic review of the English literature was performed using PubMed, Scopus, and the Cochrane Library databases from inception till April 2022. The review was based on the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) guidelines and included only studies reporting on 30-day readmission following LEB for occlusive PAD. The quality of evidence was assessed using the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development, and Evaluations (GRADE) approach and was reported as high, moderate, or low. The risk of bias was evaluated utilizing the Risk of Bias in Nonrandomized Studies - of Interventions (ROBINS-I) tool. A pooled odds ratio (OR) for each study was computed, and a P-value of <0.05 was designated as statistically significant. Interstudy heterogeneity was evaluated by Q-metric and quantified using Higgins I2 statistics. Results: Five studies reported data on 30-day readmission after LEB for occlusive PAD. A total of 19,739 patients were included. Readmission occurred among 3,559 (18%) patients. DM and COPD were reported by all 5 selected studies, and CHF and HTN were reported by 4 studies. CAD was least reported among the selected 5 pre-existing conditions, with only 2 studies mentioning it. HTN (OR, 1.35; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.10–1.64; P ≤ 0.001; I2 = 52.20%), DM (OR, 1.52; 95% CI, 1.30–1.79; P ≤ 0.001; I2 = 74.51%), and CHF (OR, 1.85; 95% CI, 1.51–2.25; P ≤ 0.001; I2 = 50.48%) were all found to be associated with an increased risk of 30-day readmission, while the presence of COPD (OR, 1.16; 95% CI, 0.98–1.36; P = 0.09; I2 = 61.93%) and CAD (OR, 1.30; 95% CI, 0.94–1.78; P = 0.11; I2 = 51.01%) was not associated with early readmission on meta-analysis of the available studies. Conclusions: The pre-existing comorbidities HTN, DM, and CHF increase the risk of 30-day readmission after LEB for occlusive PAD. The identification of these risk factors can help stratify the patients and further guide in understanding the variety of factors that contribute in hospital readmissions.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine