A Tale of Two Regulatory Regimes: Creation and Analysis of a Bilingual Privacy Policy Corpus

Siddhant Arora, Henry Hosseini, Christine Utz, Vinayshekhar Bannihatti Kumar, Tristan Dhellemmes, Abhilasha Ravichander, Peter Story, Jasmine Mangat, Rex Chen, Martin Degeling, Tom Norton, Thomas Hupperich, Shomir Wilson, Norman Sadeh

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

1 Scopus citations

Abstract

Over the past decade, researchers have started to explore the use of NLP to develop tools aimed at helping the public, vendors, and regulators analyze disclosures made in privacy policies. With the introduction of new privacy regulations, the language of privacy policies is also evolving, and disclosures made by the same organization are not always the same in different languages, especially when used to communicate with users who fall under different jurisdictions. This work explores the use of language technologies to capture and analyze these differences at scale. We introduce an annotation scheme designed to capture the nuances of two new landmark privacy regulations, namely the EU's GDPR and California's CCPA/CPRA. We then introduce the first bilingual corpus of mobile app privacy policies consisting of 64 privacy policies in English (292K words) and 91 privacy policies in German (478K words), respectively with manual annotations for 8K and 19K fine-grained data practices. The annotations are used to develop computational methods that can automatically extract “disclosures” from privacy policies. Analysis of a subset of 59 “semi-parallel” policies reveals differences that can be attributed to different regulatory regimes, suggesting that systematic analysis of policies using automated language technologies is indeed a worthwhile endeavor.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publication2022 Language Resources and Evaluation Conference, LREC 2022
EditorsNicoletta Calzolari, Frederic Bechet, Philippe Blache, Khalid Choukri, Christopher Cieri, Thierry Declerck, Sara Goggi, Hitoshi Isahara, Bente Maegaard, Joseph Mariani, Helene Mazo, Jan Odijk, Stelios Piperidis
PublisherEuropean Language Resources Association (ELRA)
Pages5460-5472
Number of pages13
ISBN (Electronic)9791095546726
StatePublished - 2022
Event13th International Conference on Language Resources and Evaluation Conference, LREC 2022 - Marseille, France
Duration: Jun 20 2022Jun 25 2022

Publication series

Name2022 Language Resources and Evaluation Conference, LREC 2022

Conference

Conference13th International Conference on Language Resources and Evaluation Conference, LREC 2022
Country/TerritoryFrance
CityMarseille
Period6/20/226/25/22

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Language and Linguistics
  • Library and Information Sciences
  • Linguistics and Language
  • Education

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