Acoustic monopoles, dipoles, and quadrupoles: An experiment revisited

Daniel A. Russell, Joseph P. Titlow, Ya Juan Bemmen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

85 Scopus citations


A simple and inexpensive demonstration of acoustic monopole, dipole, and quadrupole sources utilizes four 4-in. boxed loudspeakers and a homemade switch box. The switch box allows the speakers to be driven in any combination of phase relationships. Placing the speakers on a rotating stool allows students to measure directivity patterns for monopole, dipole, and quadrupole speaker combinations. Stacking the speakers in a square, all facing the same direction, allows students to aurally compare the frequency and amplitude dependence of sound radiation from monopoles, dipoles, and quadrupoles.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)660-664
Number of pages5
JournalAmerican Journal of Physics
Issue number8
StatePublished - Aug 1999

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • General Physics and Astronomy


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