Pneumonia is one of the most common acute infections and the single greatest infectious cause of death in children worldwide. In uncomplicated, community-acquired pneumonia in immunocompetent patients, the diagnosis is clinical and imaging has no role. The first role of imaging is to identify complications associated with pneumonia such as pleural effusion, pulmonary abscess, and bronchopleural fistula. Radiographs are recommended for screening for these complications and ultrasound and CT are recommended for confirmation. The second role of imaging is to identify underlying anatomic conditions that may predispose patients to recurrent pneumonia. CT with intravenously administered contrast is recommended for this evaluation. The American College of Radiology Appropriateness Criteria are evidence-based guidelines for specific clinical conditions that are reviewed annually by a multidisciplinary expert panel. The guideline development and revision include an extensive analysis of current medical literature from peer reviewed journals and the application of well-established methodologies (RAND/UCLA Appropriateness Method and Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation or GRADE) to rate the appropriateness of imaging and treatment procedures for specific clinical scenarios. In those instances where evidence is lacking or equivocal, expert opinion may supplement the available evidence to recommend imaging or treatment.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging