INTRODUCTION: Acute kidney injury is associated with high mortality in the perioperative period of liver transplantation. The aim of this position paper was to provide an up-to-date overview with special emphases on diagnosis, risk factors, and treatment. EVIDENCEACQUISITION: The Liver Intensive Care Group of Europe nominated a panel of recognized international experts who reviewed the available literature published from 1990 to January 2016 and produced clinical recommendations. The level of evidence and strength of recommendation were judged according to the Grading of Recommendations Assessment Development and Evaluation system. EVIDENCESYNTHESIS: Diagnosis of AKIshould be based on the KDIGOcriteria. The preoperative risk factors are more related to the patients predisposing factors and post-operative risk factors tend to be difficult to control. Therefore, focusing on intra-operative risk factors it would be important to maintain an adequate hemodynamics and to keep inferior vena cava clamping as short as possible. Biomarkers to identify AKIat an early stage are available; however, there is a lack of robust data that indicates their true beneficial effect. Intraoperative renal replacement therapy may be beneficial in some selective cases whereas its postoperative timing is still under debate. CONCLUSIONS: Perioperative liver transplant risk factors for acute kidney injury are difficult to control. Therefore, the focus should be on intra-operative hemodynamics and nephrotoxic drugs avoidance. Prospective randomized trials are needed to show the beneficial effect of early replacement therapy.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine