This paper describes an approach to harvesting electrical energy from a mechanically excited piezoelectric element. A vibrating piezoelectric device differs from a typical electrical power source in that it has a capacitive rather than inductive source impedance, and may be driven by mechanical vibrations of varying amplitude. An analytical expression for the optimal power flow from a rectified piezoelectric device is derived, and an "energy harvesting" circuit is proposed which can achieve this optimal power flow. The harvesting circuit consists of an ac-dc rectifier with an output capacitor, an electrochemical battery, and a switch-mode dc-dc converter that controls the energy flow into the battery. An adaptive control technique for the dc-dc converter is used to continuously implement the optimal power transfer theory and maximize the power stored by the battery. Experimental results reveal that use of the adaptive dc-dc converter increases power transfer by over 400% as compared to when the dc-dc converter is not used.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Electrical and Electronic Engineering