Background: The mortality associated with pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD) has decreased substantially in recent times, but high morbidity continues to be a significant problem. With reductions in mortality, there is increasing willingness to combine organ resections with PD when indicated. There is, however, a paucity of information regarding the morbidity and mortality of multivisceral resection (MVR) that involves pancreaticoduodenectomy (MVR-PD). Methods: Patients undergoing PD between January 2002 and November 2007 by a single surgeon were reviewed and perioperative outcomes determined. Those treated by PD alone were compared to those undergoing MVR-PD. Results: There were 105 patients overall who underwent PD during the study period, with MVR-PD performed in 19 patients. Twelve (63%) patients required PD combined with right colectomy, two (11%) underwent PD combined with right nephrectomy, two (11%) required liver resection with PD, and the remaining three (16%) had various combinations of kidney, colon, adrenal and small bowel resection in addition to PD. In both groups, the main indication for surgery was pancreatic cancer; however, there were proportionally more patients in the MVR-PD group with gastrointestinal stromal tumors (two (11%) patients), sarcomas (two (11%) patients) and metastases to the periampullary region (three (16%) patients). The overall complication rate in this study was 60%. Delayed gastric emptying (39%) and pancreatic fistula (16%) were the most common complications. There was no significant difference in complications between the two groups. A non pylorus-preserving PD was more commonly performed in cases of MVR-PD (53% vs 28%; p∈=∈0.007), operating times were longer (9.5 vs 8 h; p∈=∈0.002), and surgical intensive care unit stay was greater (2 vs 1 days; p∈<∈0.001). The overall median length of hospital stay (7 days) and readmission rate were similar between the groups. Conclusion: MVR-PD can be performed without significant added morbidity compared to PD alone. The main indication for MVR-PD is locally advanced pancreatic cancer requiring PD combined with right hemicolectomy.
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