Additively manufactured Ni-20Cr to V functionally graded material: Computational predictions and experimental verification of phase formations

Beril Tonyali, Hui Sun, Brandon Bocklund, John Paul Borgonia, Richard A. Otis, Shun Li Shang, Zi Kui Liu, Allison M. Beese

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations


A database for the Cr-Ni-V system was constructed by modeling the binary Cr-V and ternary Cr-Ni-V systems using the CALPHAD approach aided by density functional theory (DFT)-based first-principles calculations and ab initio molecular dynamics (AIMD) simulations. To validate this new database, a functionally graded material (FGM) using Ni-20Cr and elemental V was fabricated using directed energy deposition additive manufacturing (DED AM) and experimentally characterized. The deposited Ni-20Cr was pure fcc phase, while increasing the amount of V across the gradient resulted in the formation of sigma phase, followed by the bcc phase. The experimentally measured phase data was compared with computational predictions made using a Cr-Ni-V thermodynamic database from the literature as well as the database developed in the present work. The newly developed database was shown to better predict the experimentally observed phases due to its accurate modeling of binary systems within the database and the ternary liquid phase, which is critical for accurate Scheil calculations.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number174011
JournalJournal of Alloys and Compounds
StatePublished - May 25 2024

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Mechanics of Materials
  • Mechanical Engineering
  • Metals and Alloys
  • Materials Chemistry

Cite this