Maintaining structural stability is a great challenge for high-capacity conversion electrodes with large volume change but is necessary for the development of high-energy-density, long-cycling batteries. Here, we report a stable phosphorus anode for sodium ion batteries by the synergistic use of chemically bonded phosphorus-carbon nanotube (P-CNT) hybrid and cross-linked polymer binder. The P-CNT hybrid was synthesized through ball-milling of red phosphorus and carboxylic group functionalized carbon nanotubes. The P-O-C bonds formed in this process help maintain contact between phosphorus and CNTs, leading to a durable hybrid. In addition, cross-linked carboxymethyl cellulose-citric acid binder was used to form a robust electrode. As a result, this anode delivers a stable cycling capacity of 1586.2 mAh/g after 100 cycles, along with high initial Coulombic efficiency of 84.7% and subsequent cycling efficiency of ∼99%. The unique electrode framework through chemical bonding strategy reported here is potentially inspirable for other electrode materials with large volume change in use.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Materials Science(all)
- Physics and Astronomy(all)