Severe hemorrhage causes significant metabolic and cellular dysfunction secondary to deficient tissue perfusion and oxygen delivery. If bleeding continues, hemodynamic destabilization, hypoxemia, multiple organ failure, and death will occur. Techniques employed to promote hemostasis include surgical suture ligatures, cautery, chemical agents, self-assembling nanoparticles, and physical methods, like mechanical pressure. Improved understanding of the natural clotting cascade has allowed newly designed agents to become more targeted for clinical and military use. Topically-applied hemostatic agents have enormous clinical applications in achieving hemostasis. This manuscript describes currently available and developing topical hemostatic materials, including topical active agents, mechanical agents, synthetic/hemisynthetic hemostatic agents, and external hemostatic dressings for clinical practice.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Pharmacology (medical)