Purpose: We determined whether there are differences in hormone levels, such as inhibin B, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone and testosterone, and sperm density in men with a history of unilateral cryptorchidism as stratified by age at orchiopexy. Materials and Methods: A total of 84 men with a history of unilateral cryptorchidism presented to our institution for serum hormone measurement and semen analysis. These parameters were compared using Pearson's correlations and analysis of variance among 4 groups stratified according to age at orchiopexy (range 1 month to 11 years). Results: Comparison by Pearson's correlation analysis showed that age at orchiopexy significantly correlated inversely with inhibin B (r = -0.274, p = 0.012) and positively correlated with FSH (r = 0.229, p = 0.036). Comparison of mean hormone levels and sperm density by analysis of variance for linear trend revealed a significant relationship between age at surgery with inhibin B (p = 0.032) and testosterone (p = 0.029), while sperm density, FSH and luteinizing hormone were not significantly related. Post hoc comparison of individual means at surgery and at the time of this study demonstrated a significantly higher inhibin B level in the youngest age group than in 2 of the 3 older groups. Conclusions: Men who previously had unilateral cryptorchidism and who underwent orchiopexy by age 2 years have higher inhibin B and lower FSH profiles than those who underwent surgery later in life. This finding suggests an overall beneficial effect of early orchiopexy in boys born with unilateral cryptorchidism.
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