This study investigated the role of Alpha-tocopherylquinone (TQ) in regulating the intestinal immune system and the underlying mechanisms. In the experimental dextran sodium sulfate and T cell-mediated colitis models, TQ significantly reduced the mRNA levels of interleukin (IL)-6, IL-1β, IL-17A, IL-23, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and the abundance of proinflammatory macrophages, T helper (Th)17 cells, and ILC3s in the colons of wild-type mice. TQ also prevented lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced activation of NFκB and signal transducer and activator of transcription (Stat)-3 pathways in the human macrophage U937 cells. Pharmacological inhibition or CRISPR-Cas-9-mediated knockout of Aryl hydrocarbon Receptor (AhR) prevented the anti-inflammatory effects of TQ in the LPS-treated U937 cells. Furthermore, TQ reduced the mRNA levels of the LPS-induced pro-inflammatory cytokines in the WT but not Ahr-/- mice splenocytes. TQ also reduced IL-6R protein levels and IL-6-induced Stat-3 activation in Jurkat cells and in vitro differentiation of Th17 cells from wild-type but not Ahr-/- mice naive T cells. Additionally, TQ prevented the pro-inflammatory effects of LPS on macrophages and stimulation of T cells in human PBMCs and significantly reduced the abundance of tumor necrosis factor-α, IL-1β, and IL-6hi inflammatory macrophages and Th17 cells in surgically resected Crohn's disease (CD) tissue. Our study shows that TQ is a naturally occurring, non-toxic, and effective immune modulator that activates AhR and suppresses the Stat-3-NFκB signaling.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Immunology and Allergy