In this paper, we propose a novel reduced order model (ROM) lengthscale that is constructed by using energy distribution arguments. The new energy-based ROM lengthscale is fundamentally different from the current ROM lengthscales, which are built by using dimensional arguments. To assess the novel, energy-based ROM lengthscale, we compare it with a standard, dimensionality-based ROM lengthscale in two fundamentally different types of models: (i) the mixing-length ROM (ML-ROM), which is a ROM closure model; and (ii) the evolve-filter-relax ROM (EFR-ROM), which is a regularized ROM. We test the four combinations (i.e., ML-ROM and EFR-ROM equipped with the energy-based and dimensionality-based lengthscales) in the numerical simulation of the turbulent channel flow at Reτ=395. The numerical investigation yields the following conclusions: (i) The new energy-based ROM lengthscale is significantly (almost two orders of magnitude) larger than the standard dimensionality-based ROM lengthscale. As a result, the energy-based lengthscale yields more stable ML-ROMs and EFR-ROMs than the dimensionality-based lengthscale. (ii) The energy-based lengthscale displays the correct asymptotic behavior with respect to the ROM dimension, whereas the dimensionality-based lengthscale does not. The energy-based lengthscale is intrinsically adaptive with respect to the ROM dimension, which is important in realistic settings where using the full order model data to determine an optimal ROM lengthscale may not be possible. (iii) The energy-based lengthscale yields ML-ROMs and (when significant filtering is effected) EFR-ROMs whose parameters are less sensitive (i.e., more robust) than the parameters of the ML-ROMs and EFR-ROMs based on the dimensionality-based lengthscale. The novel energy-based lengthscale could enable the development of better scale-aware ROM strategies for flow-specific applications and is expected to have long term applications in nuclear reactor thermal-hydraulics.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Nuclear and High Energy Physics
- General Materials Science
- Nuclear Energy and Engineering
- Safety, Risk, Reliability and Quality
- Waste Management and Disposal
- Mechanical Engineering