An evolutionary scenario for the origin of flowers

Michael W. Frohlich

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

76 Scopus citations


The Mostly Male theory is the first to use evidence from gene phylogenies, genetics, modern plant morphology and fossils to explain the evolutionary origin of flowers, It proposes that flower organization derives more from the male structures of ancestral gymnosperms than from female structures. The theory arose from a hypothesis-based study. Such studies are the most likely to generate testable evolutionary scenarios, which should be the ultimate goal of evo-devo.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)559-566
Number of pages8
JournalNature Reviews Genetics
Issue number7
StatePublished - Jul 1 2003

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Molecular Biology
  • Genetics
  • Genetics(clinical)


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