An Overview of Botulinum Toxins: Past, Present, and Future

Todd V. Cartee, Gary D. Monheit

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

35 Scopus citations


Although the mechanism of action of botulinum toxin (BTX) has been intensively studied, many unanswered questions remain regarding the composition and clinical properties of the two formulations of BTX currently approved for cosmetic use. In the first half of this review, these questions are explored in detail, with emphasis on the most pertinent and revelatory studies in the literature. The second half delineates most of the common and some not so common uses of BTX in the face and neck, stressing important patient selection and safety considerations. Complications from neurotoxins at cosmetic doses are generally rare and usually technique dependent.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)409-426
Number of pages18
JournalClinics in Plastic Surgery
Issue number3
StatePublished - Jul 2011

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Surgery


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