Analysis of craniofacial growth in Crouzon syndrome using landmark data

J. T. Richtsmeier, S. Lele

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

39 Scopus citations


Finite-element scaling analysis (FESA), generalized procrustes analysis (GPA), and Euclidean distance matrix analysis (EDMA) are applied in a two-dimensional study of craniofacial growth in normal children and those affected with Crouzon syndrome. Longitudinal data are used and growth is measured as change local to 10 craniofacial landmarks. Although details of the results vary among the methods, all 3 methods determine Crouzon growth to be different from normal. Nuances of the methods, especially the use of superimposition in GPA and lack of superimposition in 2 others are partly responsible for the varying results. Although Crouzon craniofacial morphology is often obvious at birth, this study demonstrates that there are general differences between normal postnatal growth patterns and those of the Crouzon individual. These patterns of malgrowth are in part responsible for the adult morphology of the Crouzon craniofacial complex.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)39-62
Number of pages24
JournalJournal of Craniofacial Genetics and Developmental Biology
Issue number1
StatePublished - 1990

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Genetics
  • Developmental Biology


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