Gastrointestinal bleeding (GIB) especially from arteriovenous malformations (AVM) remains one of the devastating complications following continuous-flow left ventricular device (CF-LVAD) implantation. Blockade of angiotensin II pathway using angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEI)/angiotensin receptor blockers (ARB) was reported to mitigate the risk of GIB and AVM-related GIB by suppressing angiogenesis. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate the association between ACEI/ARB treatment and GIB in CF-LVAD population. Comprehensive literature search was performed through December 2019. We included studies reporting risk of GIB and/or AVM-related GIB events in LVAD patients who received ACEI/ARB with those who did not. Data from each study were combined using the random-effects to calculate odd ratios and 95% confidence intervals. Three retrospective cohort studies were included in this meta-analysis involving 619 LVADs patients (467 patients receiving ACEI/ARB). The use of ACEI/ARB was statistically associated with decreased incidence of overall GIB (pooled OR 0.35, 95% CI 0.22–0.56, I2 = 0.0%, p < 0.001). There was a non-significant trend toward lower risk for AVM-related GIB in patients who received ACEI/ARB (pooled OR 0.46, 95% CI 0.19–1.07, I2 = 51%, p = 0.07). Larger studies with specific definitions of ACEI/ARB use and GIB are warranted to accurately determine the potential non-hemodynamic benefits of ACEI/ARB in CF-LVAD patients.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Medicine (miscellaneous)
- Biomedical Engineering