Antimüllerian hormone level predicts ovulation in women with polycystic ovary syndrome treated with clomiphene and metformin

Allison S. Komorowski, Lydia Hughes, Prottusha Sarkar, David A. Aaby, Ajay Kumar, Bhanu Kalra, Richard S. Legro, Christina E. Boots

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Scopus citations


Objective: To describe the serum anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) concentrations in a large, well-phenotyped cohort of women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and evaluate whether AMH predicts successful ovulation induction in women treated with clomiphene and metformin. Design: Secondary analysis of randomized controlled trial. Setting: Not applicable. Patient(s): A total of 333 women with anovulatory infertility attributed to PCOS who participated in the double-blind randomized trial entitled the Pregnancy in Polycystic Ovary Syndrome I (PPCOS I) study (registration number, NCT00068861) who had serum samples from baseline laboratory testing available for further serum analysis were studied. Intervention(s): Not applicable. Main Outcome Measure(s): The association between the baseline AMH levels in each of the 3 treatment groups and ovulation, pregnancy, and live birth rates were assessed. Result(s): A total of 322 individuals had a baseline AMH concentration available, of which the mean AMH was 11.7 ± 8.3 ng/mL (range 0.1–43.0 ng/mL). With each unit (1 ng/mL) increase in baseline AMH, the odds of ovulation decreased by 10% (odds ratio, 0.90; 95% confidence interval, 0.86–0.93); this effect did not differ by treatment group. Women with a high baseline AMH concentration (>8 ng/mL) were significantly less likely to ovulate compared with those with a normal baseline AMH concentration (<4 ng/mL) (odds ratio, 0.23; 95% confidence interval, 0.05–0.68). This remained statistically significant when controlling for confounders, including age, body mass index, time in study, and Homeostatic Model Assessment for Insulin Resistance score. Ovulation occurred even at very high AMH concentrations; there was no maximum level noted at which no ovulation events occurred. Baseline AMH concentration was not associated with pregnancy or live birth rates when controlling for confounders. Conclusion(s): These AMH values in well-phenotyped individuals with PCOS add to the literature and will aid in identifying AMH criteria for the diagnosis of PCOS. In women with infertility and PCOS, a higher AMH concentration was associated with reduced odds of ovulation with ovulation induction with clomiphene, clomiphene + metformin, and metformin. Clinical Trial Registration Number: The original trial from which this analysis is derived was entitled “Pregnancy in Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: A 30 Week Double-Blind Randomized Trial of Clomiphene Citrate, Metformin XR, and Combined Clomiphene Citrate/Metformin XR For the Treatment of Infertility in Women With Polycystic Ovary Syndrome” and was registered on as number NCT00068861. The URL for the trial is The first subject was enrolled in November 2002.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)660-668
Number of pages9
JournalFertility and sterility
Issue number4
StatePublished - Apr 2024

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Reproductive Medicine
  • Obstetrics and Gynecology

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