Antiretroviral drug use and HIV drug resistance among HIV-infected black men who have sex with men: HIV prevention trials network 061

Iris Chen, Matthew B. Connor, William Clarke, Mark A. Marzinke, Vanessa Cummings, Autumn Breaud, Jessica M. Fogel, Oliver Laeyendecker, Sheldon D. Fields, Deborah Donnell, Sam Griffith, Hyman M. Scott, Steven Shoptaw, Carlos Del Rio, Manya Magnus, Sharon Mannheimer, Darrell P. Wheeler, Kenneth H. Mayer, Beryl A. Koblin, Susan H. Eshleman

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

21 Scopus citations


Background: HIV Prevention Trials Network (HPTN) 061 enrolled black men who have sex with men in the United States. Some men with low/undetectable HIV RNA had unusual patterns of antiretroviral (ARV) drug use or had drugs detected in the absence of viral suppression. This report includes a comprehensive analysis of ARV drug use and drug resistance among men in HPTN 061 who were not virally suppressed. Methods: The analysis included 169 men who had viral loads <400 copies per milliliter at enrollment, including 3 with acute infection and 13 with recent infection. By self-report, 88 were previously diagnosed, including 31 in care; 137 men reported no ARV drug use. Samples from these 169 men and 23 seroconverters were analyzed with HIV genotyping and ARV drug assays. Results: Forty-eight (28%) of the 169 men had ≤1 drug resistance mutation (DRM); 19 (11%) had multiclass resistance. Sixty men (36%) had ≤1 ARV drug detected, 42 (70%) of whom reported no ARV drug use. Nine (23%) of 39 newly infected men had ≤1 DRM; 10 had ≤1 ARV drug detected. Unusual patterns of ARV drugs were detected more frequently in newly diagnosed men than previously diagnosed men. The rate of transmitted drug resistance was 23% based on HIV genotyping and self-reported ARV drug use but was 12% after adjusting for ARV drug detection. Conclusions: Many men in HPTN 061 had drug-resistant HIV, and many were at risk of acquiring additional DRMs. ARV drug testing revealed unusual patterns of ARV drug use and provided a more accurate estimate of transmitted drug resistance.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)446-452
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes
Issue number4
StatePublished - 2015

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Infectious Diseases
  • Pharmacology (medical)


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