Apoplastic sugar extraction and quantification from wheat leaves infected with biotrophic fungi

Veronica Roman-Reyna, John P. Rathjen

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter

11 Scopus citations


Biotrophic fungi such as rusts modify the nutrient status of their hosts by extracting sugars. Hemibiotrophic and biotrophic fungi obtain nutrients from the cytoplasm of host cells and/or the apoplastic spaces. Uptake of nutrients from the cytoplasm is via intracellular hyphae or more complex structures such as haustoria. Apoplastic nutrients are taken up by intercellular hyphae. Overall the infection creates a sink causing remobilization of nutrients from local and distal tissues. The main mobile sugar in plants is sucrose which is absorbed via plant or fungal transporters once unloaded into the cytoplasm or the apoplast. Infection by fungal pathogens alters the apoplastic sugar contents and stimulates the influx of nutrients towards the site of infection as the host tissue transitions to sink. Quantification of solutes in the apoplast can help to understand the allocation of nutrients during infection. However, separation of apoplastic fluids from whole tissue is not straightforward and leakage from damaged cells can alter the results of the extraction. Here, we describe how variation in cytoplasmic contamination and infiltrated leaf volumes must be controlled when extracting apoplastic fluids from healthy and rust-infected wheat leaves. We show the importance of correcting the data for these parameters to measure sugar concentrations accurately.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationMethods in Molecular Biology
PublisherHumana Press Inc.
Number of pages10
StatePublished - 2017

Publication series

NameMethods in Molecular Biology
ISSN (Print)1064-3745

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Molecular Biology
  • Genetics

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