A polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based assay was developed for detection of insertion sequence 900 (IS900) of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in raw milk. This IS900 PCR assay included DNA extraction and PCR assay using commercially available kits. The DNA extraction and PCR assay were optimized to detect the IS900 sequence directly from raw milk. The IS900 PCR assay was evaluated by inoculating raw bulk milk and Middlebrook's 7H9 broth with 0 to 108 cfu/ml of each of four American Type Culture Collection strains of M. paratuberculosis. Under experimental conditions, both milk culture on Herrold's egg yolk medium slants, and IS900 PCR could detect 10 to 100 cfu/ml of M. paratuberculosis. Detection of M. paratuberculosis by IS900 PCR was consistent (24/24 PCR assays) when about 100 cfu/ml were present, whereas detection was variable (12/24 PCR assays) at concentrations as low as 10 cfu/ml. Based on the findings of the experimental study, IS900 PCR was further evaluated with pooled quarter milk samples from 211 cows from five herds with known history of Johne's disease. Out of 211 animals examined, nine (4%) and 69 (33%) were positive for M. paratuberculosis by milk culture and IS900 PCR from milk, respectively. A total of 20 bulk tank milk sample aliquots (one sample, four aliquots from each herd) were also examined, of which 10 (50%) were positive for M. paratuberculosis by IS900 PCR. By contrast, only one out of 20 (5%) bulk tank milk sample aliquots was positive by culture. The IS900 PCR amplified product of 229-bp obtained on testing of quarter milk and bulk tank milk samples was confirmed to be the IS900 of M. paratuberculosis by DNA sequence analysis. The results of this study suggest that M. paratuberculosis can be detected directly from quarter milk and bulk tank milk by IS900 PCR.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Food Science
- Animal Science and Zoology