Aromatic C-F Hydroxylation by Nonheme Iron(IV)-Oxo Complexes: Structural, Spectroscopic, and Mechanistic Investigations

Sumit Sahu, Bo Zhang, Christopher J. Pollock, Maximilian Dürr, Casey G. Davies, Alex M. Confer, Ivana Ivanović-Burmazović, Maxime A. Siegler, Guy N.L. Jameson, Carsten Krebs, David P. Goldberg

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The synthesis and reactivity of a series of mononuclear nonheme iron complexes that carry out intramolecular aromatic C-F hydroxylation reactions is reported. The key intermediate prior to C-F hydroxylation, [FeIV(O)(N4Py2Ar1)](BF4)2 (1-O, Ar1 = -2,6-difluorophenyl), was characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. The crystal structure revealed a nonbonding C-H···O=Fe interaction with a CH3CN molecule. Variable-field Mössbauer spectroscopy of 1-O indicates an intermediate-spin (S = 1) ground state. The Mössbauer parameters for 1-O include an unusually small quadrupole splitting for a triplet FeIV(O) and are reproduced well by density functional theory calculations. With the aim of investigating the initial step for C-F hydroxylation, two new ligands were synthesized, N4Py2Ar2(L2, Ar2 = -2,6-difluoro-4-methoxyphenyl) and N4Py2Ar3(L3, Ar3 = -2,6-difluoro-3-methoxyphenyl), with -OMe substituents in the meta or ortho/para positions with respect to the C-F bonds. FeII complexes [Fe(N4Py2Ar2)(CH3CN)](ClO4)2 (2) and [Fe(N4Py2Ar3)(CH3CN)](ClO4)2 (3) reacted with isopropyl 2-iodoxybenzoate to give the C-F hydroxylated FeIII-OAr products. The FeIV(O) intermediates 2-O and 3-O were trapped at low temperature and characterized. Complex 2-O displayed a C-F hydroxylation rate similar to that of 1-O. In contrast, the kinetics (via stopped-flow UV-vis) for complex 3-O displayed a significant rate enhancement for C-F hydroxylation. Eyring analysis revealed the activation barriers for the C-F hydroxylation reaction for the three complexes, consistent with the observed difference in reactivity. A terminal FeII(OH) complex (4) was prepared independently to investigate the possibility of a nucleophilic aromatic substitution pathway, but the stability of 4 rules out this mechanism. Taken together the data fully support an electrophilic C-F hydroxylation mechanism.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)12791-12802
Number of pages12
JournalJournal of the American Chemical Society
Issue number39
StatePublished - Oct 5 2016

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Catalysis
  • General Chemistry
  • Biochemistry
  • Colloid and Surface Chemistry


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