Ask to Know More: Generating Counterfactual Explanations for Fake Claims

Shih Chieh Dai, Yi Li Hsu, Aiping Xiong, Lun Wei Ku

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

4 Scopus citations

Abstract

Automated fact-checking systems have been proposed that quickly provide veracity prediction at scale to mitigate the negative influence of fake news on people and on public opinion. However, most studies focus on veracity classifiers of those systems, which merely predict the truthfulness of news articles. We posit that effective fact checking also relies on people's understanding of the predictions. In this paper, we propose elucidating fact-checking predictions using counterfactual explanations to help people understand why a specific piece of news was identified as fake. In this work, generating counterfactual explanations for fake news involves three steps: asking good questions, finding contradictions, and reasoning appropriately. We frame this research question as contradicted entailment reasoning through question answering (QA). We first ask questions towards the false claim and retrieve potential answers from the relevant evidence documents. Then, we identify the most contradictory answer to the false claim by use of an entailment classifier. Finally, a counterfactual explanation is created using a matched QA pair with three different counterfactual explanation forms. Experiments are conducted on the FEVER dataset for both system and human evaluations. Results suggest that the proposed approach generates the most helpful explanations compared to state-of-the-art methods. Our code and data is publicly available https://github.com/yilihsu/AsktoKnowMore.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationKDD 2022 - Proceedings of the 28th ACM SIGKDD Conference on Knowledge Discovery and Data Mining
PublisherAssociation for Computing Machinery
Pages2800-2810
Number of pages11
ISBN (Electronic)9781450393850
DOIs
StatePublished - Aug 14 2022
Event28th ACM SIGKDD Conference on Knowledge Discovery and Data Mining, KDD 2022 - Washington, United States
Duration: Aug 14 2022Aug 18 2022

Publication series

NameProceedings of the ACM SIGKDD International Conference on Knowledge Discovery and Data Mining

Conference

Conference28th ACM SIGKDD Conference on Knowledge Discovery and Data Mining, KDD 2022
Country/TerritoryUnited States
CityWashington
Period8/14/228/18/22

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Software
  • Information Systems

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