Assessing the influence of complex terrain on severe convective environments in Northeastern Alabama

Branden Katona, Paul Markowski

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

8 Scopus citations


Storms crossing complex terrain can potentially encounter rapidly changing convective environments. However, our understanding of terrain-induced variability in convective storm environments remains limited. HRRR data are used to create climatologies of popular convective storm forecasting parameters for different wind regimes. Self-organizing maps (SOMs) are used to generate six different low-level wind regimes, characterized by different wind di-rections, for which popular instability and vertical wind shear parameters are averaged. The climatologies show that both instability and vertical wind shear are highly variable in regions of complex terrain, and that the spatial distributions of perturbations relative to the terrain are dependent on the low-level wind direction. Idealized simulations are used to in-vestigate the origins of some of the perturbations seen in the SOM climatologies. The idealized simulations replicate many of the features in the SOM climatologies, which facilitates analysis of their dynamical origins. Terrain influences are greatest when winds are approximately perpendicular to the terrain. In such cases, a standing wave can develop in the lee, leading to an increase in low-level wind speed and a reduction in vertical wind shear with the valley lee of the plateau. Additionally, CAPE tends to be decreased and LCL heights are increased in the lee of the terrain where relative humidity within the boundary layer is locally decreased.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1003-1029
Number of pages27
JournalWeather and Forecasting
Issue number3
StatePublished - Jun 2021

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Atmospheric Science


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