Assessment of the efficacies of correction procedures for multiple thin layer effects on Cone Penetration Tests

Kaleigh M. Yost, Russell A. Green, Sneha Upadhyaya, Brett W. Maurer, Alba Yerro-Colom, Eileen R. Martin, Jon Cooper

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

14 Scopus citations


Multiple interbedded fine-grained layers in a sand deposit have a “smoothing” effect on the measured Cone Penetration Test (CPT) tip resistance (qc), resulting in a significant underestimation of the predicted liquefaction resistance of the sand layers. Trends identified by De Lange [14] through calibration chamber tests on stratified sand-clay profiles are used herein to develop a new thin-layer correction procedure for qc (the “Deltares” procedure). The efficacies of the Deltares and the independently-developed Boulanger and DeJong [6] procedures are both directly assessed using CPT data from calibration chamber tests and indirectly inferred from CPT-based liquefaction case histories in Christchurch, New Zealand. The results highlight limitations of the assessed thin-layer CPT qc correction procedures for layers less than 40 mm thick. Multiple, interbedded thin layers also influence the measured CPT sleeve friction (fs), but in a more complex way than they influence qc. To-date, no procedures have been proposed to address all the thin-layer-effects phenomena on the measured fs, with errors in properly characterizing the fs of a layer inherently influencing the accuracy of predicting the liquefaction susceptibility and potential of the layer. In totality, the thin-layer-effects correction procedures proposed to-date generally result in slightly less accurate predictions of the observed liquefaction severity for cases having highly stratified profiles, opposite of what would be expected and desired.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number106677
JournalSoil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering
StatePublished - May 2021

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Civil and Structural Engineering
  • Geotechnical Engineering and Engineering Geology
  • Soil Science


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