Study Objectives: Psychiatric/learning disorders are associated with sleep disturbances, including those arising from abnormal cortical activity. The odds ratio product (ORP) is a standardized electroencephalogram metric of sleep depth/intensity validated in adults, while ORP data in youth are lacking. We tested ORP as a measure of sleep depth/intensity in adolescents with and without psychiatric/learning disorders. Methods: Four hundred eighteen adolescents (median 16 years) underwent a 9-hour, in-lab polysomnography. Of them, 263 were typically developing (TD), 89 were unmedicated, and 66 were medicated for disorders including attention-deficit/hyperactivity (ADHD), learning (LD), and internalizing (ID). Central ORP during non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep was the primary outcome. Secondary/exploratory outcomes included central and frontal ORP during NREM stages, in the 9-seconds following arousals (ORP-9), in the first and second halves of the night, during REM sleep and wakefulness. Results: Unmedicated youth with ADHD/LD had greater central ORP than TD during stage 3 and in central and frontal regions during stage 2 and the second half of the sleep period, while ORP in youth with ADHD/LD on stimulants did not significantly differ from TD. Unmedicated youth with ID did not significantly differ from TD in ORP, while youth with ID on antidepressants had greater central and frontal ORP than TD during NREM and REM sleep, and higher ORP-9. Conclusions: The greater ORP in unmedicated youth with ADHD/LD, and normalized levels in those on stimulants, suggests ORP is a useful metric of decreased NREM sleep depth/intensity in ADHD/LD. Antidepressants are associated with greater ORP/ORP-9, suggesting these medications induce cortical arousability.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Clinical Neurology
- Physiology (medical)