Association of heavy metals and trace elements in renal cell carcinoma: A case-controlled study

Sridhar Panaiyadiyan, Javed Ahsan Quadri, Brusabhanu Nayak, Surabhi Pandit, Prabhjot Singh, Amlesh Seth, Ahmadullah Shariff

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

15 Scopus citations


Purpose: Trace elements and/or heavy metals are important for various biological activities. However, excess amount of these elements is associated with a variety of diseases, including cancer. We aimed to analyse the alterations of trace elements levels in renal cell carcinoma (RCC) patients. Materials and methods: In this observational study, patients with biopsy proven RCC were taken as study group while age- and sex-matched healthy volunteers were taken as control. Blood and urine samples were compared for Arsenic (As), Copper (Cu), Manganese (Mn), Selenium (Se), Cadmium (Cd), Lead (Pb) and Mercury (Hg) levels measured by inductively coupled plasma mass-spectroscopy. Serum glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), superoxide dismutase (SOD) antioxidant enzymes and lipid peroxidation (LPO) levels were assessed to know the redox status between 2 groups. Results: A total of 76 RCC cases and 64 controls were recruited in the study. A significantly higher concentration of As, Cu, Mn, Cd, Pb and Hg were observed in the blood of RCC patients as compared to controls. However, blood Se level was significantly lower in RCC patients. In 33 (43.4%) patients, one or more heavy metals were higher in the blood above their permitted level as compared to 10 (15.6%) subjects in control group. RCC patients had a higher urinary Mn and Se levels compared to controls. A significantly lower GSH-Px (182.08 ± 132.91 vs. 236.95 ± 132.94, P = 0.04) and a higher LPO levels (26.02 ± 20.79 vs. 14.06 ± 8.44, P = 0.003) were noted in RCC patients than controls. SOD levels were comparable between two groups. Conclusions: A significantly altered heavy metals concentration is noted in the blood and urine in RCC patients as compared to healthy controls. An associated lower levels of GSH-Px antioxidant enzyme and increased LPO in RCC patients signifies an imbalance in the redox status.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)111.e11-111.e18
JournalUrologic Oncology: Seminars and Original Investigations
Issue number3
StatePublished - Mar 2022

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Oncology
  • Urology

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