Association of Preoperative Frailty with Inferior Outcomes for Patients Undergoing Lower Extremity Bypass for Chronic Limb Threatening Ischemia: A Systematic Review

Billal Alamarie, Abdul Wasay Paracha, Ahsan Zil-E-Ali, Kayla Krause, Faisal Aziz

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


Background: Frailty is a risk factor associated with adverse postoperative outcomes following lower extremity bypass (LEB) surgery in patients with peripheral arterial disease (PAD). Chronic limb threatening ischemia (CLTI) represents the worst form of PAD, and frailty is common among patients presenting with CLTI. Multiple frailty assessment scores have been developed for the past 2 decades; however, a universal clinical assessment tool for measuring frailty has not yet been established due to the complexity of the concept. This systematic review aimed to evaluate the use of a frailty index as a predictor of postoperative outcomes in patients undergoing LEB. Methods: The review protocol was registered in the international prospective register of systematic reviews (PROSPERO) database (CRD42022358888). A systematic literature search was conducted using the PubMed and Scopus databases. The review followed the preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and metaanalyses (PRISMA) guidelines. The risk of bias was evaluated using the Risk of Bias in Non-randomized Studies of Interventions (ROBINS-I) tool. A total of 3,929 studies were initially selected originally and were eventually left with 6 studies that met the inclusion criteria of this systematic review. Results: Six studies were examined that assessed the relationship between frailty index and long-term mortality following LEB for CLTI were screened. All analyses were published between 2017 and 2020 and included a broad spectrum of patients who underwent LEB. The results of these studies showed inconsistencies in the reporting of postoperative outcomes and the time endpoint of these events. However, all correlated with higher frailty index and increased mortality rate. Conclusions: Higher frailty index preoperatively is associated with an increased likelihood of postoperative comorbidities after undergoing LEB. Identifying and addressing the preoperative frailty index of these patients may be a practical approach to reducing postoperative adverse outcomes. A thorough review of the frailty spectrum and standardized reporting of outcomes in the context of frailty could be helpful to have a more comprehensive understanding of this subject.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)320-328
Number of pages9
JournalAnnals of Vascular Surgery
StatePublished - Nov 2023

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Surgery
  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine

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