Augmentation of antibody responses by retinoic acid and costimulatory molecules

A. Catharine Ross, Qiuyan Chen, Yifan Ma

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

46 Scopus citations


Antibody production is crucial for a successful vaccine response. Beyond the ability of vitamin A (VA) and its active metabolite, all-trans-retinoic acid (RA) to restore growth in VA-deficient animals, supplementation with VA and/or treatment with RA can augment antibody responses in both VA-deficient and VA-adequate animals. RA alone, and in combination with stimuli that are ligands for the Toll-like receptor family, can augment the adaptive immune response leading to a heightened primary antibody response, and a stronger recall response upon restimulation. Mechanisms may include regulation of cell populations, type 1/type 2 cytokines, and B cell-related transcription factors, leading to accelerated B cell maturation.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)42-50
Number of pages9
JournalSeminars in Immunology
Issue number1
StatePublished - Feb 2009

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Immunology and Allergy
  • Immunology


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